Place Names In This Database

Place Names In This Database

Caldwell and Christie Manors were originally seigniories known as the Seigniories of Foucault and Noyan in New France. Seigniories were grants of land given to noblemen in the French regime. They were known as seigneurs. The seigniories were divided up and rented out to peasants who paid the seigneur dues called the cens. Hence, these peasants who rented the land were known as censitaires.

The Treaty of Paris in 1763

In 1760 the British defeated the French in North America and militarily took control of New France. The Treaty of Paris was signed in 1763 laid out the terms of the capitulation. French nobleman who owned seigneuries recognized the difficulties they would face in this new environment and began selling their seigneuries. Sieur de Foucault sold his seigniory to General James Murray who eventually sold it Colonel Henry Caldwell. It became known as Caldwell Manor. Similarly, Pierre Jacques de Payan, sieur de Noyan, sold his seigniory, the Seigniory of Noyan, to Lieutenant Colonel, Gabriel Christie. The Seigniory of Noyan eventually became known as Christie Manor. The land conquered by the British, what we know today as Quebec, was called the Province of Quebec by the British. Hence, both Caldwell and Christie Manors were located in the Province of Quebec.

The Quebec Act of 1774

In 1774, the British passed the Quebec Act. It greatly enlarged the province of Quebec to include what we now know as Ontario as well as large part of the west in what would eventually be the United States including Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin and Minnesota.

The Constitution Act of 1794

The Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the Province of Quebec into two part. Upper Canada (what we know now as Ontario) and Lower Canada (what we know now as Quebec). Missisquoi County did not exist at this time. Bedford County included:

  • most of Farnham
  • Dunham
  • Stanbridge
  • Bleurie
  • Sabrevois
  • Noyan
  • Foucault
  • St. Armand
  • part of Sutton

In 1822, the Seigniories of Foucault and Noyan were divided by a north-south line. The western portion was known as the Parish of St. Thomas and the eastern part as the Parish of St. George.

Counties Reorganized in 1829

In 1829, counties were reorganized. The large county of Bedford was divided into two counties: Rouville and Missisquoi. Missisquoi included:

  • Dunham Township
  • Stanbridge Township
  • Sutton Township
  • The Seigniory of St. Armand

Rouville included:

  • Seigniory of Foucault
  • Seigniory of Noyan
  • Seigniory of Sabrevoix

Continued in column 2...

Counties Reorganized in 1857

In 1857, Sutton becomes part of Brome. Missisquoi expanded to include:

  • Dunham Township
  • Stanbridge Township
  • Farnham West Township
  • Parish of St. Armand East
  • Parish of St. Armand West
  • Parish of St. Thomas
  • Parish of St. George

The Many Labels For Foucault & Noyan

As can be seen from the previous history, the Seigniories of Noyan and Foucault, aka as Caldwell and Christie Manors, are described in a number of ways depending on the date of the event.

  • From 1792 to 1829: Foucault & Noyan are in the county of Bedford.
  • From 1829 to 1857: Foucault & Noyan are in the county of Rouville.
  • After 1857: Foucault & Noyan are in the county of Missisquoi.

This phenomenon occurs with many other place names found in this database.

The Many Labels For The Province of Quebec

What we now know as the Province of Quebec has had many names over time:

  • Prior to the Conquest in 1760: Canada (a colony which was part of New France).
  • From 1760 to 1792: The Province of Quebec (which included what is now known as Ontario).
  • From 1792 to 1841. Upper Canada (Ontario) & Lower Canada (Quebec).
  • From 1841 to 1867. Canada West (Ontario) & Canada East (Quebec).
  • From 1767 to today. Ontario & Quebec.

Place Names In This Database

The name of a place where an event occurred can be recorded in many ways when doing genealogy. Some researchers use the name of the place as it exists today while others use the name as it existed at the time of the event. Still others use GPS coordinates.

This database will use the name of the place as it existed at the time of the event. However, in the interest of simplicity and familiarity, the database will:

1. Use the county name associated with that place in the mid-1860's. These are the counties which were associated with the place for more than a hundred years since 1857 until the historic county names were abolished in 1979.

2. Use Quebec and Ontario to name the larger entities rather than the name for these at the time (i.e., Upper Canada, Lower Canada, Canada West, Canada East).

1. Clarenceville in 1815: Clarenceville, Missisquoi, QC (rather than Clarenceville, Bedford, Lower Canada).

2. Loughborough in 1850: Loughborough, Frontenac, ON (rather than Loughborough, Frontenac, Canada West).

The Process Of Updating Place Names

It has taken much research to establish the historical context for determining when and how names in this database were affected by events which caused the name of a place to change. The process of reviewing all the place names and making the necessary corrections will be a gradual one which will take some time.